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  • 江伟伟,裴蕾,王胜云,何超,李文放*.胸腰椎爆裂性骨折:从致伤因素看临床症状[J].第二军医大学学报,2019,40(8):909-913    [点击复制]
  • JIANG Wei-wei,PEI Lei,WANG Sheng-yun,HE Chao,LI Wen-fang*.Thoracolumbar burst fracture: from injury causes to clinical symptoms[J].Acad J Sec Mil Med Univ,2019,40(8):909-913   [点击复制]
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胸腰椎爆裂性骨折:从致伤因素看临床症状
江伟伟,裴蕾,王胜云,何超,李文放*
0
(海军军医大学(第二军医大学)长征医院急救科, 上海 200003
*通信作者)
摘要:
目的 回顾性分析胸腰椎爆裂性骨折致伤因素与相应临床表现之间的关系,以提升胸腰椎爆裂性骨折的预警诊断能力,减少误诊、漏诊,提高急救成功率。方法 纳入2009年1月至2018年12月我院急救科重症监护病房(ICU)收治的胸腰椎爆裂性骨折患者,回顾性分析相关临床资料,包括年龄、性别、住院时间、致伤原因、并发症、合并症、出院日期、预后等。结果 共纳入胸腰椎爆裂性骨折患者83例,男69例(83.13%),女14例(16.87%),平均年龄为(44.64±15.26)岁;致伤原因分别为高处坠落伤(53例,63.86%)、交通事故伤(17例,20.48%)、重物砸伤(12例,14.46%);合并颅脑损伤31例(37.35%),胸部伤53例(63.86%),腹部伤37例(44.58%),其他部位骨折44例(53.01%)。53例胸部伤中,血气胸19例(35.85%)、单纯血胸13例(24.53%)、单纯气胸7例(13.21%)、纵隔积血8例(15.09%)、纵隔气肿7例(13.21%)、连枷胸11例(20.75%)、膈疝5例(9.43%)。37例腹部伤中,脾破裂8例(21.62%)、肝包膜下血肿3例(8.11%)、肝脾同时损伤4例(10.81%)。初步诊断时,膈疝漏诊5例(100.00%)、纵隔积血漏诊5例(62.50%)、纵隔气肿漏诊4例(57.14%)、连枷胸漏诊2例(18.18%)、单纯血胸漏诊2例(15.38%),其余合并症漏诊率均低于10.00%。并发症以支气管肺炎(37例,44.58%)和创伤性失血性休克(17例,20.48%)多见,并发多器官功能障碍综合征(MODS)8例(9.64%),多器官功能障碍均累及3个以上器官。出院时截瘫39例(46.99%),死亡3例(3.61%)。结论 胸腰椎爆裂性骨折多发于中青年男性,高处坠落是首要致伤因素。血气胸是主要临床表现,膈疝、纵隔积血与纵隔气肿最易被漏诊。接近50%的患者出现外伤性截瘫,值得关注。
关键词:  胸腰椎爆裂性骨折  高处坠落  急性肺挫伤  膈疝  截瘫
DOI:10.16781/j.0258-879x.2019.08.0909
投稿时间:2019-05-04修订日期:2019-07-25
基金项目:上海市科委工程技术研究中心建设项目(18DZ2251200),上海市卫生和计划生育委员会重要薄弱学科建设专项资金(2016ZB0201),军队后勤科研重点项目(BWS14C018),军队保健科研课题(CWS14BJ08).
Thoracolumbar burst fracture: from injury causes to clinical symptoms
JIANG Wei-wei,PEI Lei,WANG Sheng-yun,HE Chao,LI Wen-fang*
(Department of Emergency and Critical Medicine, Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University(Second Military Medical University), Shanghai 200003, China
*Corresponding author)
Abstract:
Objective To analyze the relationship between the factors causing thoracolumbar burst fracture and the corresponding clinical manifestations, so as to improve the early warning and diagnosis of thoracolumbar burst fracture, reduce the misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis, and improve the success rate of first aid. Methods The clinical data of thoracolumbar burst fractures treated in the Intensive Care Unit of Depretment of Emergency of our hospital from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical data, including age, sex, hospital duration, causes, complications, discharge, and prognosis, were analyzed retrospectively. Results A total of 83 patients with thoracolumbar burst fracture, including 69 males (83.13%) and 14 females (16.87%), were selected for this study. The average age was (44.64±15.26) years. The causes of the injury included:high falling injury (53 cases, 63.86%), traffic accident injury (17 cases, 20.48%), and heavy object injury (12 cases, 14.46%). There were 31 cases (37.35%) of craniocerebral injury, 53 cases (63.86%) of chest injury, 37 cases (44.58%) of abdominal injury, 44 cases (53.01%) of other fracture. Among the 53 cases of chest injury, there were 19 cases (35.85%) with hemopneumothorax, 13 cases (13.21%) with simple hemothorax, 7 cases (24.53%) with simple pneumothorax, 8 cases (15.09%) with mediastinal hemorrhage, 7 cases (13.21%) with mediastinal emphysema, 11 cases (20.75%) with flail chest, and 5 cases (9.43%) with diaphragmatic hernia. Among 37 cases of abdominal injuries, there were 8 cases (21.62%) with rupture of spleen, 3 cases (8.11%) with subcapsule hematomas, and 4 cases (10.81%) with simultaneous injury of liver and spleen. The missed diagnoses at the initial diagnosis included:5 cases (100.00%) of diaphragmatic hernia, 5 cases (62.50%) of mediastinal hemorrhage, 4 cases (57.14%) of mediastinal emphysema, 2 cases (18.18%) of flail chest, and 2 cases (15.38%) of simple hemothorax. Missed diagnosis rate of the other complications were all under 10.00%. The main complications were bronchopneumonia (37 cases, 44.58%) and traumatic hemorrhagic shock (17 cases, 20.48%). There were 8 cases (9.64%) complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), with more than 3 systems involved. There were 39 patients (46.99%) had paraplegia and 3 cases (3.61%) died at discharge. Conclusion Thoracolumbar burst fractures are more common in young and middle-aged men, with high falling being the primary cause and hemopneumothorax being the main clinical manifestation. Diaphragmatic hernia, mediastinal hemorrhage and mediastinal emphysema are easy to have missed diagnosis. Nearly 50% patients have traumatic paraplegia, which is worthy of attention and in-depth study.
Key words:  thoracolumbar burst fracture  high falling  acute lung contusion  diaphragmatic hernia  paraplegia