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  • 李红霞,沈嘉敏,沈志雷,汤雨潇,杨建新,莫烽锋,杜鹏,蒋与刚,沈慧.海军潜艇某部艇员膳食营养调查与评价[J].第二军医大学学报,2020,41(5):570-573    [点击复制]
  • LI Hong-xia,SHEN Jia-min,SHEN Zhi-lei,TANG Yu-xiao,YANG Jian-xin,MO Feng-feng,DU Peng,JIANG Yu-gang,SHEN Hui.Dietary and nutritional survey among submarine crew[J].Acad J Sec Mil Med Univ,2020,41(5):570-573   [点击复制]
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海军潜艇某部艇员膳食营养调查与评价
李红霞1,沈嘉敏1,沈志雷1,汤雨潇1,杨建新1,莫烽锋1,杜鹏2,蒋与刚3,沈慧1*
0
(1. 海军军医大学(第二军医大学)海军医学系营养与食品卫生学教研室, 上海 200433;
2. 空军特色医学中心, 北京 100142;
3. 军事科学院军事医学研究院环境医学与作业医学研究所, 天津 300050
*通信作者)
摘要:
目的 了解海军某部潜艇艇员的膳食营养状况,为指导部队合理膳食及制定新的食物定量标准提供依据。方法 在潜艇停靠码头期间,选取某部潜艇艇员100名作为调查对象。共发放调查问卷100份,回收有效问卷96份,问卷有效率为96.0%。采用称量法进行连续4 d的膳食调查,采用24 h生活观察法计算艇员每日能量消耗情况;检测艇员BMI及体脂率,通过问卷调查了解官兵常见营养缺乏症状及对伙食供应的建议。结果 被调查潜艇艇员粮食、大豆、蔬菜、禽肉、牛奶、鱼虾等食物摄入不足,畜肉、植物油摄入过量;每人每日摄入能量高于军队标准且能满足能量消耗需要,蛋白质和脂肪供能比过高,碳水化合物供能比偏低;钠、铁、磷、维生素E等摄入过量,而碘、维生素A和B族维生素等摄入不足;被调查艇员中超重和肥胖者占46.8%(36/77),体脂率偏高和高者占48.1%(37/77);眼睛发干、牙龈出血、口腔和舌溃疡等营养缺乏症状的发生率分别为26.0%(25/96)、22.9%(22/96)、19.8%(19/96);水果、奶制品和牛羊肉为艇员建议增加供应食品的前3位。结论 该潜艇部队艇员膳食结构不合理,三大产能营养素供能比例不恰当,营养素摄入不均衡,建议调整优化膳食结构,改善饮食模式,以保障艇员健康。
关键词:  潜艇  膳食调查  营养调查  体格检查
DOI:10.16781/j.0258-879x.2020.05.0570
投稿时间:2019-09-29修订日期:2020-04-04
基金项目:国防科技创新特区项目(19-163-12-ZD-18-003-01),海军军医大学(第二军医大学)“远航”军事医学人才项目(2019-YH-02),海军军医大学(第二军医大学)长海医院“深蓝123”军事医学研究专项,后勤科研军用标准项目(BWS18B026).
Dietary and nutritional survey among submarine crew
LI Hong-xia1,SHEN Jia-min1,SHEN Zhi-lei1,TANG Yu-xiao1,YANG Jian-xin1,MO Feng-feng1,DU Peng2,JIANG Yu-gang3,SHEN Hui1*
(1. Department of Naval Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Naval Medical University(Second Military Medical University), Shanghai 200433, China;
2. Air Force Special Medical Center, Beijing 100142, China;
3. Institute of Environmental and Operational Medicine, Institute of Military Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Sciences, Tianjin 300050, China
*Corresponding author)
Abstract:
Objective To investigate the dietary and nutritional status of submarine crew, and to provide guides for reasonable diet and reference for seting new food standards for military personal. Methods During submarine docking, 100 submarine crew were selected as subjects. A total of 100 questionnaires were sent out and 96 valid questionnaires were collected, with an effective rate of 96.0%. The dietary survey was carried out for 4 consecutive days by weighing method. The daily energy consumption of the crew was measured by 24-hour life observation method, meanwhile the body mass index (BMI) and body fat rate were also measured. The common nutritional deficiency symptoms and suggestions on food supply were evaluated by the questionnaire. Results The survey showed that the food intakes, such as cereals, soybean, vegetables, poultry, milk, fish and shrimp, were insufficient, while the intakes of livestock meat and vegetable oil were above the military standard. Their daily energy intakes were higher than the military standard requirements and could meet the energy consumption; the protein and fat energy supply ratios were too high, while that of carbohydrate was too low. The intakes of sodium, iron, phosphorus and vitamin E were all over the standard, while the intakes of iodine, vitamin A and B vitamins were insufficient. Physical investigation showed that overweight and obesity was 46.8% (36/77), and slightly higher and high body fat rate was 48.1% (37/77). In addition, the incidences of nutritional deficiency symptoms, such as dry eyes, bleeding gums, and mouth and tongue ulcers were 26.0% (25/96), 22.9% (22/96) and 19.8% (19/96), respectively. Fruits, dairy products, beef and mutton were the top three recommended food to be increased for the crew's food supply. Conclusion The submarine crew have an unreasonable dietary structure, inappropriate energy supply of the three major nutrients, and unbalanced nutrient intakes. It is necessary to adjust the dietary structure and improve the diet pattern so as to promote the crew's health.
Key words:  submarine  diet surveys  nutrition surveys  physical examination